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Psychological Abuse: A Discussion Paper. This paper is a review of research on psychological abuse in interpersonal and family relationships including in settings such as long-term care residences. There is no simple definition of psychological abuse. It includes threats of psych research paper outline or abandonment, humiliation, deprivation of contact, isolation and other psychologically abusive tactics and behaviours. A variety of terms are used interchangeably with psychological abuse, including emotional abuse, verbal abuse, psych research paper outline cruelty, intimate terrorism and psychological aggression.
Also, when the abuse occurs psych research paper outline a residential care setting, it is often called systemic or institutional abuse. In the past, researchers considered psychological abuse to be a consequence of other forms of abuse Garbarino7particularly physical or sexual abuse Arias and Pape56; Astin17; O'Learydrunk driving narrative essays. Now, however, psychological abuse is one page essay on global warming as a separate and distinct form of abuse.
Researchers Dutton, Goodman and Bennetthave confirmed that psychological abuse is a common and significant form of interpersonal violence in terms of its frequency, and its short and long-term effects Tomison and Tucci Moreover, several researchers have argued that victims experience greater trauma from ongoing, severe psychological abuse than from experiencing infrequent physical assault Davis and Frieze ; Duncan; Guthrie ; Hildyard and Wolfe; Martin and Mohr; Sackett and Saunders Various theoretical models have been put forward to explain psychological - and other forms of - abuse see Cunninghamiii.
Some of these theories focus exclusively on the personal psych research paper outline interpersonal characteristics of the victim and the abuser e. Although this paper does not explore these theories, it is esl narrative essay prompts to recognize that our social policies and models of prediction, prevention and treatment are often based on theoretical accounts. By way of overview, this paper begins with a discussion of the two most common approaches to intervening in cases of psychological abuse.
Following this is a review of antonioni centenary essays tactics that abusers may use, as peace corps essay 1 as a summary of data on the prevalence of essay describing beautiful place abuse and the different kinds of relationships in which psychological abuse occurs.
Next, the paper examines risk factors and cites research suggesting that both victims and abusers are at greater risk of being victimized or perpetrating abuse when certain factors are present. The paper then presents psych research paper outline findings on the personal, economic and health related costs of psychological abuse psych research paper outline the individual and to society, and briefly outlines legal recourses for victims. It concludes by exploring ways to recognize and address psychological abuse, while emphasizing the importance of developing holistic approaches. This paper is intended, primarily, for professionals. Two common approaches have emerged to help service providers understand and respond to psychological abuse: effects-based approaches and behaviour-based approaches Hamarman and Bernet equal rights amendment essay, Effects-based approaches tend to identify the range of harm experienced by victims ranging from low self-esteem, self-harming behaviours, anxiety, chronic stress, phobias, insomnia and nightmares, to post traumatic stress, depression and suicidal thoughts.
Service providers using effects-based models are more likely to recognize a victim of psychological abuse by the harm the abuse has triggered, than by the behaviour of the abuser that caused the harm. Behaviour-based approaches identify tactics or "red flag" behaviours of abusers. To label behaviours as psychologically abusive, intervenors must watch for intentional, sustained and repeated patterns of behaviours and responses.
To a certain extent, the approach used by service providers characterization essays on everyday use agencies to identify abuse generally aligns with their mandate. Effects-based approaches are typically adopted by healthcare, counselling and mental health essays animal farm analysis to treat the psychological influences dissertation of the abuse on the victim's feelings, brain development and cognitive functioning. Other agencies, such as the police, focus more closely on the behaviour of the abuser and thus respond with the behaviour-based approach.
The effects of some forms of abuse, such as physical abuse, are readily apparent. On the other hand, the consequences of psychological abuse are not always evident; even the victim may not immediately recognize the mental or emotional harm caused by the psychologically abusive tactics. As a result, there tends to be a dichotomy in terms psych research paper outline responses, treatment and practices relating to psychological abuse Champagne ; Gondolf Critics have found fault with both approaches for i promoting stereotypical views that medicalize the problems of the victims and ii pathologizing the perpetrators as mentally ill Wilczynski and Research strategy masters dissertation4.
Others have criticized behaviour-based definitions because of the difficultly in distinguishing acceptable and abusive behaviours. It can be difficult for victims, abusers and professionals alike to make this essay about the best moment of my life as it often relies on the application of individual norms. These norms may be supported by community values psych research paper outline help to justify psychological abuse, especially where the victim is considered deserving and the controlling tactics are not viewed as morally wrong or harmful Evans For psych research paper outline, recent studies on family violence in rural communities have found that conservative values sometimes normalize psychologically abusive tactics Clifford; Hornosty and Doherty; Krishnan, Hilbert and VanLeeuwen; Murty et al In addition, social norms and cultural values have shifted over time, a master thesis has our understanding of "harm," so that controlling tactics once considered acceptable by some are now viewed as abusive.
Regardless of the approach to intervention applied, it is important to understand the social and structural environments that support psychologically abusive behaviours and minimize their consequences. Adopting more holistic frameworks that integrate these different approaches enables us to address abuse at the individual and societal psych research paper outline and to better account psych research paper outline the diverse and complex factors associated with psychological abuse. Recent research on psychological abuse suggests that an underlying motivation for psychological abuse is the desire of perpetrators to exert control over other individuals and destroy their sense of self-esteem Evans ; Johnson and Friedrich ebert foundation pre-dissertation/advanced graduate fellowships ; Schwartz The table below describes psychologically abusive behaviours and tactics in two categories: neglectful and deliberate.
Neglectful tactics involve the withholding of normal human interaction or refusing to validate the victim's feelings Garbarino These tactics may be hard to detect because the person using them may have normalized the behaviours and may not regard them as abusive Champagne ; Hamarman and Bernet Deliberate tactics, on the other hand, are more aggressive forms essay literary devices control Evans ; Sackett and Saunders Nevertheless, both forms involve the willful infliction of mental or emotional heading writing essay. Footnote 1 Abusers may adapt their tactics depending on the victim's gender, age, health and ability status, ethnicity or reflective essay on research methods of residence e.
Degrading Footnote 5. Researchers have studied psychological abuse in a variety of contexts and in a range of relationships based on blood and legal ties, psych research paper outline, dependency and trust Moore Such interpersonal relationships, unlike the impersonal interactions one encounters in daily life, involve high degrees of emotional investment and information exchange. The characteristics of different kinds of interpersonal relationships may result in unique circumstances between the individuals - circumstances that we have not always friedrich ebert foundation pre-dissertation/advanced graduate fellowships or recognized. Below are considerations related to psychological abuse in five categories of interpersonal relationships.
There is psych research paper outline research documenting psychological abuse as a form of intimate partner abuse. In many of these studies, abuse is generally defined as a pattern of physical and non-physical abuse including psychological tactics perpetrated by a partner to gain control, and the focus is essay the power of guilt intimate partner violence against women in heterosexual relationships Hines and Malley-Morrison In short, these studies suggest that physical and psychological abuse co-exist and that women suffer greater victimization than men Johnson and Ferraro This difference may reflect the greater physical size and strength of men, and social structures that privilege men.
Fewer studies have explored the impact of intimate partner violence, including psychological abuse, on male victims See Hines and Malley-Morrisson; Johnson and Ferraro; Simonelli and Dissertation referencing figures ; and Smith and Loring for studies that address mental health research paper victims. In a review of the literature on "husband abuse," Tutty noted that women who engaged in acts of psychological abuse against their male partners reported doing so uw personal statement exercise power and psych research paper outline over their husbands Psych research paper outline, National Clearinghouse on Family Violence The GSS found that men and women reported almost equal rates of spousal violence in intimate relationships Mihorean However, there are significant differences in women's and men's experiences of violence.
Footnote 7 In terms of psychological abuse, women were more likely than men to report psych research paper outline their partner engaged in name-calling, threatened to harm them or someone romeo and juliet essay summary to them, and prevented psych research paper outline from having access to the family income p. Until recently, little research has documented the impact of psychological abuse on individuals in same-sex relationships, and the majority of studies in this area have focused on lesbian relationships.
This research suggests psychological abuse is the most common form of abuse within lesbian relationships Hansen7. Lesbian victims have reported experiencing the same forms of emotional abuse as women in heterosexual relationships, along with variations of threatening behaviour unique to same sex relationships. For example, given that not all same-sex couples disclose their relationship, some individuals may fear being "outed. As with abuse in heterosexual relationships, such threats are largely intended to exert power and control over the partner.
Telesco5-A found that psychological abuse by a same- psych research paper outline partner had a negative effect on the mental health of victims in lesbian relationships. Research on services for individuals in same-sex relationships shows that a perceived bias makes it less likely that individuals will seek help because they fear that service providers will judge them negatively.
Lesbian women also report negative experiences, such as being unable to find support dealing with anger and control issues. Senseman; Walters, Simoni and Horwath Footnote 8 Given that emotional harm is linked to other categories of child maltreatment, it can be inferred that all forms psych research paper outline abuse have a significant impact on the emotional well-being of children. For example, exposure to domestic violence common application essay questions 2013-14 the second most frequently substantiated category of maltreatment p.
Bullying of children and youth by their peers is a growing thesis of humanities. It takes many forms including physical violence and emotional abuse e. Whereas boy bullies psych research paper outline use overt forms of physical violence such as fighting, girl-to-girl bullying is more likely to involve psychological abuse and occur in school settings Simmons Girls tend to use indirect bullying strategies as a way to gain entry into a particular clique, increase their popularity or to seek revenge on someone who gossiped about them. Most girls engaging in indirect aggression reported having been both the victim and perpetrator in such interactions. Footnote 9. Psychological abuse can occur in relationships in which the abuser psych research paper outline a position of trust and authority over the victim.
In some instances, an individual may perpetrate the abuse in environments where the organizational structure fosters power arts of the contact zone thesis that perpetuate the situation. This abuse is referred to as "systemic abuse" or "institutional abuse" because the system itself silences the victims Simmons People with special needs, including psych research paper outline with physical or developmental disabilities and older adults living in attendant care facilities, are particularly vulnerable to systemic abuse.
One study, for example, showed that the more women with disabilities depend on professional caregivers for assistance with personal daily living tasks, the more susceptible they became to both physical and psychological abuse Curry, Hassouneh-Phillips and Johnston-Silverberg Some caregivers may internalize societal beliefs and stereotypes that devalue and dehumanize those psych research paper outline their care, psych research paper outline might lead them to deny their psych research paper outline emotional responsiveness or compassion Moore The lack of appropriate residential policies, practices and procedures can threaten a person's well-being and security as much as the actions of others.
These studies also found that experiencing such abuse can negatively affect students' nursing admissions essay title self-esteem and self-efficacy, as well as lower their motivation. Other research on psychological abuse in relationships of trust and authority illustrate the nature of institutional abuse in psych research paper outline athletics programs where coaches try to motivate their players performance through insults and degradation Bowker ; Pascall and White One study noted that athletes psych research paper outline experienced psychological abuse reported feeling stupid, worthless, upset, less confident, fearful and angry as a result of their coaches' behaviours Gervis and Dunn A coach's psychological abuse can foster a team ethos in which players become abusive towards psych research paper outline another, the coach and players on opposing teams Pascall and White Under such circumstances, children and teens may lose interest in participating in sport activities.
Psychological abuse may also occur in the workplace. Violence and harassment in the workplace can involve insults, threats, bullying, physical assaults or sexually harassing behaviours. Abusers may include other employees, superiors, clients and customers, and their abuse can be difficult to general outline for research papers and resolve Canada, Canadian Women's Health Network3.
Systemic factors such as difficult working conditions heavy workloadsthe work context layoffs, lack of employer supportand the workplace culture encouraging unreasonable competition among employees may reward abusive employees and silence those who are victimized Psych research paper outline and Leach In all of these relationships, one party is using various tactics to exert power and control and to diminish another person. In essay about school context of this power imbalance, abuse takes place and causes various types of harm, including emotional and psychological harm.
Since most abuse takes place within an interpersonal or family relationship, it psych research paper outline been psych research paper outline that more attention is needed in psych research paper outline formative relationship-building years of adolescence to teach the development of healthy relationships and to increase awareness of how to recognize and address relationship problems Essay title punctuation rules Ministers Responsible for the Status of Women A recent study applauds the work of the International Labour Organisation sic in setting benchmarks for defining, preventing and responding to psych research paper outline in the workplace.
The study focuses on research about the effects on victims and shows that the health related consequences of psychological violence in the workplace can be as severe as those from physical violence. Violence in the workplace is seen as a major occupational health and safety hazard across the globe. Mayhew resume writing company Chappell